The human body consists of different types of organs with different functions. For the smooth functioning of these organs, we need to maintain the health of the body and all organs by providing adequate and balanced nutrition. Plus the body also requires a variety of substances also kinds. Indirectly, by consuming nutritious foods, we also meet the needs of our bodies will be various types of healthy substances.
One of the substances needed by the body is iodine. Iodine or iodine is a nonmetallic mineral substance whose primary function is to form thyroid hormone. Thyroid gland itself is the largest endoskrin gland located in the neck, just below the larynx or respiratory cavity. The thyroid gland has a function to produce proteins, produce hormones, also regulate energy combustion in the body.
Daily iodine need for each person is different. Detailed iodine needs according to age group based on recommendation of USA Medical Institute are as follows:
Adults = 0.15 mg per day
Pregnant women = 0.22 mg per day
Woman breastfeeding = 0.29 mg per day
Children aged 1-11 years = 0.09-0.12 mg per day
Babies = 0.11-0.13 mg per day
The human body can not produce its own iodine, therefore we need to obtain it from the outside through foods containing iodine. Iodine is mostly owned by water and marine biota, one of the easiest we meet is salt. Salt made with seawater raw material makes it have a high iodine content. Here's a list of foods that contain high iodine:
Marine biota in the form of animals (shellfish, shrimp, crab, tuna, salmon, sardines)
Cow's milk and its dairy products (cheese, yogurt, ice cream)
Fruits such as bananas and strawberries
Impact of Iodine Deficiency
Although the source of iodine can easily be encountered, it is possible that humans may lack iodine. For example, people living in mountainous areas are usually most susceptible to iodine deficiency. The impact of these iodine deficiencies vary, among others, the incidence of mumps, inhibition of development of intelligence in the brain and mental infant, and the occurrence of hypothyroidism.
Mumps. The impact that is clearly visible when the body is deficient in iodine is the onset of mumps. Iodine is a major source of thyroid hormone formation. This thyroid gland works to produce proteins, produce hormones, and regulate energy combustion in the body. If our bodies lack iodine, automatically the body will stimulate the thyroid gland to work harder. This will result in the swelling of the thyroid gland, or commonly referred to as mumps are characterized by a lump around the neck. If the goiter grows big enough, symptoms such as sore throat, shortness of breath, cough, and difficulty swallowing food.
Hypothyroidism. Iodine deficiency can also cause hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland can not produce enough hormones. One of the causes of this situation is the presence of severe iodine deficiency that occurred in the period long enough. Hypothyroidism causes the skin to become swollen and dry, tired and exhausted, rough and rare hair, hoarseness, depression, memory impairment, cold air resistance, weight gain, constipation, weakened heart rate, joint pain, and menstrual pattern disorders.
Mental retardation. Iodine deficiency can also cause mental retardation in children, especially in areas susceptible to iodine deficiency such as in mountainous areas. Although children born to mothers diagnosed with iodine deficiency have normal thyroid function, they tend to have lower than average language and memory skills.
Iodine is also very important for a mother who was pregnant, even needed a greater intake of iodine than those who are not pregnant. This is due to iodine that affects the development of the baby's brain and mental when in the womb. The worst risk is that the infant may develop mental retardation at birth.
Impact of Iodine Excess
In addition, there are also side effects if the body excess iodine levels. Impact caused include excessive production of saliva, the formation of goiter, the enlargement of the thyroid gland, as well as irritation of the digestive tract.
Hyperteroidism. The excess iodine that lasts for a long time has toxic effect on the thyroid that causes hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is an auto immune disorder usually characterized by the production of autoantibodies in the thyroid gland. This autoantibody is called Thyroid Stimulating Immunoglobulin. The cause of hyperthyroidism is usually a disease of graves, goiter toxica that is affected by iodine. In most people with hyperthyroidism, the thyroid gland enlarges two to three times its normal size, accompanied by many hyperplasia and folds of the follicle cells into the follicle, so that the number of these cells is increased several times compared to the enlargement of the gland. Also, each cell increases the speed of its secretion several times at a rate of 5-15 times greater than normal.
Graves. Graves is an autoimmune disease that keeps the production of thyroid hormones on the rise. Symptoms include hyperactivity, mild tremor, weight loss when eating enough.
Toxic Multinodular Goiter. One of the earliest signs of this disease is the emergence of rounded lumps and has a hard texture in the neck. One raised lump is called a single nodule, and if more than one is called multinodular. This lump can become hyperthyroidism, because with the existence of this lump can gradually increase the activity of the gland and the amount of thyroid hormone in the blood.
Thyroid cancer. Thyroid cancer begins with the tissue of the troid follicles and cancer cells that begin to produce many thyroxine hormones that can lead to hyperthyroidism.
Levotyloxin (L-thyroxine) is a synthesized thyroxine hormone in place of natural thyroxine. Giving levothyroxine is generally effective in pregnant women and children, but is less effective in adults. Provision of levotiroksin need to be monitored its use because it is feared thyrotoxicosis occurs.
Potassium Iodide (KI).
Potassium iodide is one of the most commonly used salts for the treatment of iodine deficiency and belongs to the class of antithyroid agents. Potassium iodide can be consumed in tablets, oral solutions, intramuscular or as a supplement to foods and beverages.
Radioactive iodine has been shown to decrease the size of eutyroid goiter by 40-60%. The side effect that can occur from therapy using radioactive iodine is permanent hypothyroidism.
Surgery is the standard treatment method used to treat large goitre. Large goitre may cause a variety of disorders in patients such as hoarseness and swallowing disorders.
Antithyroid drug therapy
If the problem is at the thyroid gland level, the usual therapy is an antithyroid drug that inhibits the production of TH or beta-blocking drugs to decrease sympathetic hyperresponsiveness. Drugs that damage the thyroid tissue can also be used. For example, radioactive iodine (I131) given in oral preparations, is actively absorbed by hyperactive thyroid cells. After entering I131 damage the cell. This therapy is a permanent therapy for hyperthyroidism and often causes the individual to become hypothyroid and requires replacement of TH for life.
Partial or total thyroidectomy.
Total or partial thyroidectomy can lead to hypothyroidism.
Percutaneous injection of percutaneous ethanol
Percutaneous injection of percutaneous ethanol is used in patients and patients who have an increased risk of surgery from heart or lung disease, advanced age, multimorbidity or dialysis.